Article: Ordovician (Arenig–Caradoc) syntrophiidine brachiopods from the east Baltic region
Syntrophiidine brachiopods are a rare and poorly known component of Ordovician Baltoscandian faunas. They appear in the East Baltic in the Billingenian (lower Arenig) as part of the earliest known benthic assemblages dominated by elements of the Palaeozoic Evolutionary Fauna. These faunal assemblages usually include bryozoans, ostracodes, and the earliest known porambonitoids, strophomenides and endopunctate orthides, such as Idiostrophia and Orthidium, which later became characteristic of the Whiterockian brachiopod assemblages in Laurentia, but by that time had disappeared from Baltica. The superfamily Syntrophioidea reappears in Baltoscandia in the mid Caradoc. In contrast, Porambonitoidea remained the integral part of the Baltoscandian brachiopod associations through the Ordovician. Porambonites, herein redefined on the basis of restudy of the type species P. intermedius, includes only smooth porambonitoids; taxa with the distinctive ornament of radiating rows of pits first appeared in the group in the mid Arenig. The taxa Eoporambonites gen. nov., Tetralobula peregrina sp. nov., Idiostrophia prima sp. nov. and Idiostrophia tenuicostata sp. nov. are erected.