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Article: Systematics and macroevolution of extant and fossil scalopine moles (Mammalia, Talpidae)

Palaeontology - Vol. 62 Part 4 - Cover Image
Publication: Palaeontology
Volume: 62
Part: 4
Publication Date: July 2019
Page(s): 661 676
Author(s): Achim H. Schwermann, Kai He, Benjamin J. Peters, Thorsten Plogschties, and Gabriele Sansalone
Addition Information

How to Cite

SCHWERMANN, A.H., HE, K., PETERS, B.J., PLOGSCHTIES, T., SANSALONE, G. 2019. Systematics and macroevolution of extant and fossil scalopine moles (Mammalia, Talpidae). Palaeontology, 62, 4, 661-676. DOI: /doi/10.1111/pala.12422

Author Information

  • Achim H. Schwermann - LWL‐Museum of Natural History Sentruper Straße 285 48161 Münster Germany
  • Achim H. Schwermann - Institute for Geosciences University of Bonn Nußallee 8 53115 Bonn Germany
  • Kai He - Kunming Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming Yunnan 650223 China
  • Kai He - The Kyoto University Museum Kyoto University Kyoto 606‐8317 Japan
  • Benjamin J. Peters - Institute for Geosciences University of Bonn Nußallee 8 53115 Bonn Germany
  • Thorsten Plogschties - Institute for Geosciences University of Bonn Nußallee 8 53115 Bonn Germany
  • Gabriele Sansalone - Department of Sciences Roma Tre University of Rome L.S. Murialdo 1 – 00146 Rome Italy
  • Gabriele Sansalone - Center for Evolutionary Ecology Contrada Fonte Lappone Pesche Italy
  • Gabriele Sansalone - Form, Evolution & Anatomy Research Laboratory Zoology School of Environmental & Rural Sciences University of New England Armidale NSW 2351 Australia

Publication History

  • Issue published online: 24 June 2019
  • Manuscript Accepted: 13 December 2018
  • Manuscript Received: 30 May 2018

Funded By

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Grant Number: 2014FB176)
European Community Research Infrastructure Action. Grant Numbers: GB‐TAF‐2095, AT‐TAF‐3415

Online Version Hosted By

Wiley Online Library
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Scalopini is one of the two fully fossorial mole tribes in the family Talpidae, with remarkable adaptations to subterranean lifestyles. Most living Scalopini species are distributed in North America while a sole species occurs in China. On the other hand, scalopine fossils are found in both Eurasia and North America from upper Oligocene strata onwards, implying a complex biogeographical history. The systematic relationships of both extant and fossil Scalopini across North America and Eurasia are revised by conducting phylogenetic analyses using a comprehensive morphological character matrix together with 2D geometric–morphometric analyses of the humeral shape, with a specific emphasis on Mioscalops, a genus commonly found in North America and formerly known as Scalopoides. Our phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the tribe Scalopini as well as a proposed two‐subtribe‐division scenario of Scalopini (i.e. Scalopina and Parascalopina), although Proscapanus could not be assigned to either subgenus. Our geometric–morphometric analyses indicate that the European Mioscalops from southern Germany should be allocated to Leptoscaptor, which in turn implies that Mioscalops may be endemic to North America and never arrived in Europe. Examination of biogeographical patterns does not unambiguously determine the geographical origin of Scalopini. Nevertheless, it does support multiple transcontinental colonization events across Asia, Europe and North America. Scapanulus oweni, distributed in central China, is the only remaining representative of one of those out‐of‐North‐America migrations, whereas scalopine moles are common in North America nowadays with up to five species.

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