Four giant dragonfly larvae are described from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Owing to the preservation of wing tracheal venation on the larval wing sheaths, they can be identified as the first undoubted larvae of the extinct Mesozoic family Aeschnidiidae. They are ultimate or penultimate male and female specimens, and a younger larva. The female larva has a very long ovipositor sheath. These larvae have an anisopteran anal pyramid and a very particular spoon-shaped labial mask, with a very narrow prementum and large palps with numerous teeth, suggesting possible affinities of the Aeschnidiidae with the Anisoptera Cavilabiata. The positions of other larvae formally attributed to the Aeschnidiidae are discussed, i.e. Nothomacromia sensibilis (Carle and Wighton, 1990), Sona nectes Pritykina, 1986, and the alleged larvae of Hemeroscopus baissicus Pritykina, 1977. They differ greatly from the true Chinese larval Aeschnidiidae, in the labial mask and female ovipositor, even if they show some similarities in the anal pyramid.