Article: Late Ordovician brachiopods from the Dulankara Formation of the Chu-Ili Range, Kazakhstan: their systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography
Brachiopods from the late Ordovician (late Caradoc) Dulankara Formation of the Chu-Ili Range, Kazakhstan, are reviewed. Those from the upper two members of the formation, the Degeres and Akkol members, are systematically described. New genera from the Dulankara Formation are Nikitinamena (Plectambonitoidea: Leptellinidae), with type species Nikitinamena bicostata sp. nov., and Weberorthis (Orthoidea: Plectorthidae), with type species Mimella brevis Rukavishnikova. Another new genus is Glyptomenoides (Strophomenoidea: Glyptomenidae), with type species Rafinesquina girvanensis Salmon from the Caradoc of Girvan, Scotland. Other new species from the Dulankara Formation are Holtedahlina orientalis, Platymena tersa, Christiania proclivis, Leangella (Leangella) paletsae, Metambonites subcarinatus, Ogmoplecia nesca and Plectorthis licta. The ecology and assemblages of all three members of the Dulankara Formation are identified or reviewed, and their palaeogeographical significance assessed: the Chu-Ili Terrane (on which the Dulankara Formation was situated during the Ordovician) formed part of the relatively low-latitude peri-Gondwanan complex of terranes, and was probably not far from North and South China. The faunal links suggested between the Dulankara brachiopods and contemporary faunas from Australia are now perceived to be weaker than previously thought.