We describe the first endocast reconstruction of a hyaenodont mammal based on X‐ray microtomography. The endocast belongs to the type material of the European hyaenodont Proviverra typica. We performed phylogenetic analysis to contextualize the evolution of endocranial size and complexity in Hyaenodonta. We added several European hyaenodonts and modified several codings of the most recent character–taxon matrix established to question the relationships within Hyaenodonta. Including these new species in a phylogenetic analysis reveals a new clade: Hyaenodontoidea. Comparisons with several previously described endocasts show that there was an increase in complexity in the convolutions of the encephalon within Hyaenodontidae history. Moreover, the analysis of the encephalization quotient reveals that the endocranium of the Hyaenodonta is not smaller than those of fossil Carnivora or some extant Carnivora. Therefore, the extinction of Hyaenodonta may not be linked to the relative size of hyaenodont brains.