Article: Lystrosaurus murrayi (Therapsida, Dicynodontia): bone histology, growth and lifestyle adaptations
Examination of the bone microstructure of Lystrosaurus murrayi from India and South Africa reveals a predominance of fibrolamellar bone tissue, which suggests rapid periosteal osteogenesis and an overall fast growth. Four distinct ontogenetic stages have been identified based on tissue type, organization of the primary osteons, incidence of growth rings, secondary reconstruction and endosteal bone deposition. An indeterminate growth strategy is proposed for Lystrosaurus. Inter-elemental histovariability suggests differential growth rate of the skeletal elements within the same individual, and among different individuals. The high cortical thickness of the dorsal ribs, an extensive secondary reconstruction in the cortical region of different skeletal elements that resulted in erosionally enlarged channels from the perimedullary to the midcortical region, and trabecular infilling of the medullary region even in the diaphyseal sections of the limb bones suggest at least a semi-aquatic lifestyle for L. murrayi.